September 28-29, 2001
Mexico City, Mexico
Present: R. Barber, K. Binder, M. Cardona, G. Daigle, J. Franz, B. Frois, T.
Gaisser, H. Godfrin, P. Kalmus, I. Martinson, J.L. Moran-Lopez, F. Parak, Y.
Petroff, D. Rowe, J. Sahm, K. Sharma (for B.W. Petley), G. Sincerbox, R. Turlay,
H.M. Van Driel (for R. Lang), H. Yasuoka, E. Zingu
Present by conference phone: B. Richter (President)
Absent: A. Ardeberg, W. Camp, M. MacCallum, C. Murray, J. Nilsson, B.
W. Petley, F. Sluijter, G. Yang
Guest: G. Contreras Puente, President of the Mexican Physical Society
IUPAP Staff: E. Ridgway
In the absence of President Burton Richter, who was recuperating from surgery,
President Designate, Yves Petroff, called the meeting to order. Richter later
joined the meeting by conference phone. Petroff introduced Dr. Gerardo Contreras
Puente, the President of the Mexican Physical Society, who welcomed the group
to Mexico and UNAM where the meeting was held.
Approval of Minutes
The minutes of the 2000 meeting in Beijing, China
were approved with minor changes.
Discussion focused on the importance of IUPAP's involvement
in a proposed statement on the importance of basic science. Richter said that
he has sent a message to Larry Kohler, Executive Director of ICSU, asking him
to take a lead, noting that IUPAP would like to take an active interest and
asking him to put us in contact with the proper individuals. To date Richter
had not received a response.
Frois next distributed a paper on nuclear energy entitled A Fresh Look at Nuclear
Power. He suggested that IUPAP formulate its own statement on nuclear energy
using this paper as a basis. The document would then be ready when needed. Turlay
identified the need to appoint a person responsible for each of the issues of
ICSU. He felt that it is not enough that the IUPAP President covers them. He
asked Martinson on how Sweden managed the large percentage of nuclear power
being used there. Martinson said that this is a very political issue. He said
that Sweden has shut down one reactor and plans to shut down a second one in
2003. It may now have to buy electricity from Poland and Lithuania. Van Driel
stated that the paper does not address public perception of nuclear energy and
noted that education of the general populace is extremely important. Cardona
cautioned the group not to disparage alternative energy sources.
Petroff agreed that the paper provided a good starting point. He suggested
appointing subgroups on each of the ICSU issues to work with him and Richter
in preparing draft papers. The members of the subcommittee for Nuclear Energy
were selected as follows: B. Frois (Chair), I. Martinson, and F. Parak. A
draft report is to be submitted to Richter and Petroff by the end of the year.
The report will be circulated to the Council for approval.
To ensure representation of the entire group, Frois asked that the commissions
submit comments to him in the near future. He stressed a special need for
input from Asia. Franz will send Frois a copy of a similar paper being proposed
by an APS group. Barber will send a copy of a formal paper covering the Canadian
perspective to Richter and Frois.
Capacity Building activities: At its February 2001 meeting, ICSU requested
that the Unions identify the capacity building needs of each country, to prioritize
the strategy at the Union level, and to report these to ICSU/UNESCO. Petroff
suggested making a list of all IUPAP commissions actively involved in capacity
building and solicit input from those who have not yet responded to an earlier
request from Richter. C13 was identified as a lead player. Zingu (C13) asked
for a clear definition of "capacity building". The group responded
that IUPAP help ICSU broaden its definition by including such items as "increasing
the number of women in science".
Ethics and Values: ICSU currently has a Standing Committee on Responsibility
and Ethics in Science (SCRES). Turlay has previously provided input on this
to ICSU. ICSU would like to have an IUPAP representative on this committee.
There was no strong support for this and the group felt that the information
provided to ICSU absolved IUPAP from further consideration.
Access to Data and Databases: Richter noted that CODATA has been active
in this and said that Butterworth is to be the lead. A small group is to be
selected. Richter will find out if any action has taken place.
Sustainable Development: ICSU is to establish three targets for achieving
sustainable development: health and well being; food/nutrition; and energy.
Richter is to find out what kind of participation is required. Petroff and
an additional member to be appointed by Petroff and Richter will work on this.
Basic Research: ICSU is also preparing a paper on the need for basic
research. It was the strong feeling of the group that IUPAP should contribute
to this. A small group will work on this: P. Kalmus, H. Godfrin and a third
person in the field of lasers to be suggested by Sincerbox and Lang (C17).
Reports from Commissions
Commissions were asked to submit written reports
that will be put on the IUPAP web site. Only the highlights of the reports are
C2 Sharma reported that two conferences were sponsored by the Commission. The
Conference on Precision Measurement and Fundamental Constants in 2000, and the
3rd International conference on Exotic Nuclei and Atomic Masses in 2001. Two
SUN-AMCO Medals were given this year. Recipients of the awards were Dr. C.A.
Hamilton and Professor T. W. Hänsch.
C3 Binder reported that the statistical community is in good shape. In 2001,
the Commission held the STATPHYS 21 Conference in Cancun/Mexico. Binder reported
an attendance 800 (a decrease from previous conferences) that is attributed
to the expense of airline tickets to Mexico. The conference program consisted
of 7 plenary talks, including two Boltzmann Award lectures. The Boltzmann awards
this year went to Berni J. Adler and Kyozi Kawasaki. STATPHYS 22 will be held
in India in 2004
C4 Gaisser told the Council that C4 is the standing international advisory
committee for the International Cosmic Ray Conference, the major conference
in the field. This year the conference was held in Hamburg. The 2001 O'Ceallaigh
award was awarded to V. Ginzburg and the Duggal Award for an outstanding young
scientist in the field was awarded to Teresa Monatruli. The next meeting will
be held in Japan 2003, and in India in 2005.
Gaisser said that he had received a proposal from their Russian commission
member Olga Ryazhskaya. She proposed that Russia could make a valuable contribution
to the international projects of the cosmic ray community. Since the Russian
government does not have the funds to allow full-scale participation of Russian
scientists in international collaborations, she suggested their participation
by providing expertise, including the production and delivery abroad of necessary
materials, instruments and equipment components in lieu of paying off a part
of the national debt. He forwarded the proposal to Richter who forwarded it
to the Global Science Forum. Consensus was that it should be discussed at OECD
Global Science Forum since it involves governments.
C5 Godfrin reported that the Conferences sponsored by the commission have been
going well. The last conference was held in Helsinki and the commission accepted
a proposal to hold the next conference in Japan. He pointed out that countries
like Japan have problems in adhering to the IUPAP registration limit of $325.
Discussion focused on raising the limit and Cardona told them that his commission
has solved this problem by including such things as box lunches in the registration
Godfrin said that the Feinberg Metal Selection Committee has sought advice
of the commission.
C6 Parak reported that the main activity of his commission was with the 4th
International Conference on Biological Physics held in Japan. There were a number
of new topics that attracted more than 750 participants. Unfortunately, the
topics are in direct competition with those of the conferences held by IUPAB.
The Council encouraged the Commission to continue to open its conferences to
new areas in biological physics without competing with IUPAB. The next will
be held in Sweden in 2004.
C8 Cardona reported that the conference held in Osaka drew 1500 participants
and was a financial success. A highlight of the conference was the opening speech
given by the Japanese Prince. The speech is included in Proceedings. The year
2000 awards for the Young Author Best Paper were presented to five young scientists.
Cardona said that the commission has noticed a decrease in participation of
industrial physicists at its conferences. They are now trying to remedy this
by working to bring industrial companies into the conference. Members felt that
many industrialists were unwilling to share their newest research with others
fearing the commercial competition. Industrial physicists are also holding their
C9 Yasuoka pointed out that the Commission on Magnetism is not so active during
this year, because the main conference of C9 was just over. He said the ICM
Conference held in Brazil in 2000 was a great success. The next conference is
scheduled in Rome in 2003, followed by one in Japan in 2006. The organizing
committee has been formed. He said that the Commission must replace 4 people
at the next General Assembly and is having problems limiting its nominations.
He asked if the number of members is limited to 13 people and was told that
the commission must adhere to the bylaws.
C10 was not represented at the meeting. Franz told the Council that the Vice
Chair had asked to resign. Murray (C10 Chair) has asked that P. Monceau be allowed
to serve as both Secretary and Vice Chair until the next General Assembly. A
report is available under Commission 10 on the IUPAP website.
C11 Kalmus informed the Council that the Commission met in July at the Lepton-Photon
Conference in Rome. They considered suitable candidates for chair and secretary
before the meeting. Recommendations for members will be considered over the
next few months by email. He said the next International Conference on High
Energy Physics is to be held in Amsterdam in 2002. The 2003 conference is to
be held at Fermi Lab in the USA and the 2004 in Beijing. C11 accepted a proposal
from the organizers that the Proceedings from the Amsterdam conference be in
a CD-ROM format for participants and as bound copies as archive material for
libraries. An innovation at the Rome Lepton-Photon Conference was that all speakers
were asked to submit their slides in electronic PDF format. This worked well
and as a result all talks were accessible on the web without delay. Amongst
the most interesting topics at Rome were results on CP violation and on neutrino
C12 Frois reported that the commission met during the International Nuclear
Physics Conference in Berkeley. At IUPAP's request, the commission discussed
nuclear energy in the context of global warming and concluded that nuclear energy
plays an important role in the production of world energy. Although solutions
exist for the disposal of nuclear wastes, there is a tremendous need for public
education since most problems perceived with nuclear power deal with societal
The International Nuclear Physics Conference in Berkeley was well attended
but Frois noted that attendance from the major US labs, such as CEBAF and Brookhaven
was very poor. He asked what is going on? Are US politics involved? Richter
asked Frois to give him the information and he will check with the lab directors.
Discussion then focused on energy research.
C13 Zingu briefed the Council on the difficulties faced by this commission
in particular and the developing nations in general. The Commission has problems
getting its members together to meet and stressed the importance of meeting
face to face. Binder suggested having the commission meet with a general physics
meeting to give people a reason to use funds from research grants to attend.
The EPS holds a general conference on fore fronts in physics every two or three
years and this would work well. It was generally accepted that this would be
a good idea.
Zingu said that C13 initiated a series of conferences in 1994. These conferences
were to be held every other year, but this has not happened. He noted that the
commission had received six applications for conference support 6 years ago
but applications have dwindled to two last year and none this year. This may
be because they have given up since IUPAP in the past failed to approve funding
and potential organizers may not know where else to obtain funds.
Zingu stated the membership of C13 should mainly come from developing countries,
but that the majority of developing countries are not members of IUPAP. He suggested
that each member of IUPAP from a major developed country sponsor a member from
a poorer country, such as Sweden is currently doing.
The Council then reviewed the role of C13 and determined that more involvement
is needed in the workings of developing countries by commissions other than
C13. How can the various commissions do this? Richter hesitated to have other
commissions take on extended roles. Everyone agreed that commissioners should
come from developing countries to make it work better. It was suggested that
maybe the funding for this commission should be increased. Franz pointed out
that this is already being done. The question is -- how much?
C14. Sahm informed the Council that the mandate of the commission is to promote
the exchange of information among the members of the physics community. To do
this, ICPE decided to set up a network of scientific links worldwide dedicated
to physics or science education. ICPE is aware of changes in various fields
of physics, changes in the goal of physics education, interest of students in
physics, etc. and is developing long-term priorities. The Commission has identified
a number of changes to which physics educators need to respond and hopes to
develop activities to address these needs.
Sahm said that the Commission met in Seoul in conjunction with the ICPE meeting.
The conference attracted 300 participants. ICPE decided to replace one the associate
members to C14 due to the retirement of Dr. Raither. Sahm asked for Council
approval for the appointment of Minella C. Allarcon from UNESCO as a new associate
member of C14.
C15 Martinson said that the ICPEAC conference in Santa Fe this year was very
successful. He said that there is a meeting every two years and the next one
has been scheduled for 2003. He reported that the Commission has started a discussion
about developing closer contacts with other atomic/molecular societies such
as DAMOP in North America and the Atomic and Molecular Physics Division of the
EPS. He said the Commission is in the process of finding new members for C15.
He then discussed some recent findings in the field.
C16 was not represented at the meeting. A report will be available on the website.
C17 - Van Driel reported that quantum electronics is a very healthy field.
There are many new inroads in the biological and industrial fields. Since the
field is very broad it is difficult to get members of the commission together
at a conference. Therefore, most of their work is done by email.
He said that two conferences were held this year that were very successful
and well attended. He pointed out that the influence of IUPAP on their conferences
is waning. Societies such as SPIE and OSA are making a significant impact by
holding meetings and serving their membership with publications. He said that
the registration fees for these conferences exceed IUPAP guidelines, so IUPAP
C18 Rowe said that this commission did not meet this year but did most of its
business by email. They will meet next year. He identified the need to broaden
the mandate of Commission 18. He pointed out that there are currently two groups
that have separate conferences - mathematicians and physicists. The objective
is to get the mathematicians and the physicists to interact. Richter informed
Rowe that a change in the Commission's mandate must be approved by GA and asked
him to submit a written proposal of changes if they want to proceed.
Rowe said that the commission is waiting to hear from the Liaison Committees
before they select nominations for their new commission members.
C19 had no representative at the meeting. Turlay pointed out that lack of communication
is a real problem with this Commission. He stated that only one email had been
received in the Secretary General's office during the past three years. It was
pointed out that this important commission should have more participation in
IUPAP affairs. Richter will write to the Chair on this subject.
C20 was not represented at the meeting but Binder commented on two conferences
held during the last two years. Last year's conferences attracted 200 participants
and this year's 400. He pointed out that 100 participants this year were from
the former Soviet Block and said that scientifically it was a very nice conference.
AC1 Sincerbox explained that the International Commission for Optics is unique.
Their major focus is to promote development of optics in the less developed
areas of the world. He said that the ICO membership includes forty-five territories
and professional societies that pay dues. It has an annual budget of $32,000
derived totally from dues. From this it sponsored 16 international conferences
last year with average funding between $1,000 and $3,000. The funding is to
be specifically used to provide travel support to participants from developing
In addition to the 2001 ICO Galileo/Galilei award that was presented to Kehar
Singh, and the 2001 ICO prize given to Nabeel Riza, the ICO provided support
for various other prizes.
AC2 was not represented at the meeting. Their report will be available on the
AC3 Daigle reported on the 17th Triennial Congress in Acoustics that was held
in Rome. 1400 papers were presented. He said the ICA has 45 dues paying member
societies and a budget of about $12,000 per year. It is anticipated that a number
of new members will be added this year.
In response to requests from member societies, a grants program has been established
for early career scientists that acknowledges the outstanding research contributions
of acousticians for young and early-career scientists. ICA has also established
and maintains an acoustics website and supports conferences not sponsored by
IUPAP. Plans to establish Acoustics award are in the works.
Reports from Working Groups
ICFA: Kalmus reported that ICFA held two meetings this year -- One at
DESY in Hamburg and a second one in Rome. The group will meet again in February
and July of 2002.
He said that ICFA has been considering the idea of a "Global Accelerator
Network" (GAN). The thought is to build, maintain, and control large machine
as a joint project. Two task forces were set up; one to look at the technical
considerations and the other at the socio-political aspects. The conclusions
of the second subgroup pointed to
a) the need for an existing host or nearby laboratory,
b) not too many funding agencies (small group of partners),
c) host state makes large contribution; others make both cash and in kind contributions,
d) labs not hosting should diversify to remain scientifically healthy.
The Global Science Forum (OECD) has formed a Working Group on Facilities for
High Energy Physics. This group met July 2001 at CERN with fifty people representing
20 countries. The discussion focused on:
a) What type of facility should be built next?
b) Should it be sited at an existing lab?
c) Should it pursue the GAN concept?
d) Should European contributions be through CERN?
Kalmus said that visa and customs issues must also be considered.
Other activities of ICFA included the problems encountered in inter-region
electronic connectivity, the consideration of technical items such as beam dynamics,
and workshops and instrumentation schools which would help physicists in developing
PANAGIC: Gaisser explained that the Particle and Nuclear Astrophysics
and Gravitation International Committee is an inter-commission group of 15 members
established by IUPAP in 1998.
The group has met four times since its inception and has two subcommittees:
the Gravitational Wave International Committee and HENAP (the High Energy Neutrino
Astrophysics Panel). He reported that HENAP is currently working on a report
that will be completed next year. One conclusion is that two neutrino detectors
are necessary - one in the northern and one in the southern hemisphere.
Gaisser felt that the PANAGIC membership is well balanced and adequately represents
the sub-fields. PANAGIC feels that it has accomplished a large fraction of the
work program set up at its inception. It regularly holds meetings that are well
attended. However, much more work is needed and PANAGIC seeks the approval of
the IUPAP Council of a renewed mandate for a period of six years.
Communication in Physics: A written report by M. Blume was available for the
group and will be posted on the web. Franz commented that in the first report
of the Working Group, which is now on line at http://www.iupap.org/finalrep.html,
a major recommendation was to convene a conference on Long Term Archiving of
Digital Documents in Physics. This conference is now scheduled for November
in Lyon, France. (see website for focus of conference) .
Facilities for Condensed Matter Physics: Parak reported that the Working
Group has concentrated on the problem of future neutron sources. Their first
meeting was held in November 2000 in Japan. Parak reported that the Working
Group at first was not accepted favorably by the meeting participants. Discussion
focused on how IUPAP could help neutron scattering sources. However their attitude
changed after Parak presented his report. He encountered an entirely different
attitude at the second meeting now that IUPAP is involved -provided it is not
at the expense of the other physics fields. It was suggested that other groups
should be represented. Richter offered to write to other Unions to elicit
their help or participation.
Yasuoka gave a report on the OECD workshop on large facilities where he represented
the Working Group. The members of the workshop are to produce a report which
he will submit to IUPAP.
Working Group on Women in Physics: A written report by M. Barbosa was
available for the Council and will be placed on the web. Franz mentioned that
the International Conference on Women in Physics is the first large, international
conference ever put on by IUPAP itself. She reported on funding for the conference.
Most of the participating teams will need help with their funding.
To date, approximately $300,000 has been raised in addition to funding from
countries supporting their personal teams. Since there is a financial uncertainty
until a response is received on the remainder of the funding requests, Franz
asked IUPAP to underwrite $25,000 in addition to the $25,000 contribution it
has previously approved. Franz said that over 60 countries will be represented
and distributed a list of team leaders and plenary speakers. When asked about
expected results, Franz pointed out that there has already been a major effect
in Japan that has generated great excitement - Japan has set up working group
on women in physics. Much more is expected after the conference.
Commission C10 - Vice Chair, Ken Ando, has resigned from this commission.
This has created a vacancy. The Commission asked that P. Monceau be appointed
to serve as Vice Chair as well as Secretary until the next General Assembly.
Inter Union Delegates - Turlay reported on Inter-Union committees and
joint initiatives. Some are considered very active (i.e. COSTED) but others
do not respond to IUPAP inquiries. The question was raised whether or not the
representatives know what constitutes their role as IUPAP delegates. For instance,
do they know that they are to submit a report to IUPAP. Richter is to send
an inquiry to each group to find out what is going on and if it is worthwhile
to continue to send an IUPAP representative.
Financial Report - Franz presented the final budget report from 2000
and gave an update on the 2001 budget. She then presented a proposal for the
2002 budget. She noted that the estimated income from dues is optimistic because
some countries are continually in arrears. Discussion centered around the feasibility
of an increase in membership dues. Richter said that IUPAP had not requested
a raise in nine years and that perhaps the level of IUPAP activities has been
stepped up so that an increase is justified. Binder pointed out that conference
sponsorship is one of the most visible activities of IUPAP and suggested raising
the conference and travel awards. There was general agreement that this would
Gaisser then asked how to get funding for Summer Schools in Mexico. He was
told that this could come out of working group or commission funds depending
on which IUPAP group was the sponsor.
Barber presented the pros and cons of each conference submission which were
then discussed by the group. He said that there are nine Type A Conference submissions
(one without a funding request), and ten Type B conferences. Barber made a motion
to increase the grants for Type A conferences to $10,000, grants for Type B
conferences to $5,000, and travel grants to $4,000. The motion was seconded
by Franz and approved.
Barber discussed the problems with conference fees in regard to currency fluctuations.
It was suggested that for 2003 and beyond increases in the conference fees be
determined with ½ of the registration fee calculated on the basis of
US$ and ½ on the Euro. Franz proposed that for 2002 the conference fee
be raised to $350. This was unanimously approved.
Zingu pointed out the value of media coverage at conferences and suggested
that IUPAP urge organizers to arrange press coverage at large IUPAP sponsored
meetings. It was decided that Ridgway would include a sentence in the conference
award notifications urging organizers to publicize the exciting physics at their
meetings as broadly as possible.
Barber asked the commissions to give him any available information about conferences
scheduled for 2003 and 2004.
Saturday, September 29, 2001
Statutes and By-Laws
Richter discussed the proposed revisions to the
IUPAP Statutes and By-Laws.
Changes in the By-Laws:
II (A) 2. First line - there shall be no more than one Commission member from
any IUPAP Member.
3 & 4. Change - Member (of IUPAP) shall be in upper case and member (of
Commission) in lower case
There was a discussion of whether requirement of industrial members in II (A)
4 are unrealistic. Most people wanted to weaken the wording to stress that industrial
memberships are encouraged, but no formal exception should be required.
II (B) 4. Changed to "shall not exceed three consecutive terms ."
III (A) 1. a. shall read "nominations to Commissions and Council shall
b. change one month to "six weeks"
d. add "at the GA of the persons not on the Council slate" after nominations
is first line. 4th line should read - "The Council will then prepare
Discussion centered on statements made on behalf of IUPAP. Consensus was that
three years is too long to wait for approval from the General Assembly on many
statements and a new mechanism was needed. Section V was added as follows:
It was suggested that a Section V be added on statements. Presently statements
can only be made every three years when the GA meets. A change was agreed upon
that IUPAP statements can be made by the General Assembly, and between General
Assemblies statements can be made by the Council in the name of the IUPAP Council.
Statements must have majority vote of the Council. (Commission chairs may be
consulted but do not vote on this).
Statements can now be made by commissions on narrower topics. "Commissions
may make statements in their area of expertise with the approval of the President"
Changes in the Statutes:
IV (e) typo III (A) on second line of same paragraph.
Section VI (D) should read "Vice-Chair or Secretary is an official delegate
Rowe then pointed out that the role of Commissions in III. (B) 2. is not adequately
defined. He proposed adding an extra section that defines commissions and their
tasks. Council agreed that it should be added. Rowe will send Canadian proposal
General Assembly (GA)
Richter announced that the Council and Commission Chairs are to meet before
the General Assembly on Monday, October 7-8, 2002. He proposed the general program
for the General Assembly to be as follows:
I. President's report,
II. First round of elections,
III. Financial report and dues,
IV. Commission reports - written submissions,
V. Working Groups - oral presentations,
Women in Physics,
Condensed matter physics,
VI. Statutes and Bylaws,
VII. IUPAP Statements,
VIII. ICSU report.
Sahm gave a briefing on the plans for the GA in Berlin. He said that the C&CC
meeting will be held in the Magnus Haus and the GA at Humboldt University. He
said that an excursion by boat through Berlin has been scheduled.
Petroff said he would like to meet with the outgoing and incoming officers
after the GA, but it was pointed out that many of the new people would not be
present. Richter proposed having a meeting of the new C&CC in January 2003
to avoid the expense of two C&CC meetings in the GA year, but he thought
it would be better not to wait a year after the election for a meeting of the
Franz then outlined the proposed nomination schedule. For the first time, IUPAP
will make the nomination forms available on the web. Forms for the Liaison Committees
and Commissions will be available on the IUPAP Home Page on January 1, 2002.
Liaison Committees will be able to submit nominations until June 1, 2002. In
early June the nominations will be available for viewing by the Commissions.
Commission nominations may be submitted until September 1, 2002. At that time
the nomination books will be prepared for the General Assembly. Liaison Committees
may renominate candidates at the General Assembly but Commissions may not.
Other Business Matters
Gruber Foundation Prize: IUPAP has been asked to name one member of
the Selection Committee. IUPAP selected Virginia Trimble to serve. The 2001
Prize was awarded to Martin Rees.
The Zadar Manifesto: Franz reported that she had received a document
that was created in the wake of a meeting of the International Conference for
Physics Students. This voiced student concern about uncertainty in the future
of young researchers and lack of long-term security. She asked for a response
from IUPAP. Although the Council was sympathetic to the students' concerns,
it made no recommendations and asked Franz to draft a positive response stating
that the physics degree is considered a serious degree worldwide and is looked
upon as such. Petroff, Richter and Turlay are to review the letter.
Cardona asked whether IUPAP should recommend that sponsored conference papers
be refereed. Gaisser voiced his objections that C4 conferences have those requirements.
No consensus was reached, so no recommendations will be made.
Petroff thanked everyone for coming, UNAM allowing IUPAP to use their conference
facility, Dr. H. Contreras, President of the Mexican Physical Society, and Dr.
Carmen Cisneros, President of FELASOFI, for their hosting the meeting. The meeting