Report on the IUPAP General Assembly 2002
Activities from 1998 to 2002
Alessandro Bettini (Chair), Barry C. Barish, Massimo Cerdonio, Enrique
Fernandez, Thomas K. Gaisser, Isabelle Grenier, Wick Haxton, Eckart
Lorenz, Karl Mannheim, Victor Matveev, Arthur B. McDonald, John Peoples,
Michel Spiro, Yoji Totsuka, Alan Watson,
1. The origins and the initial mandate
The committee was created by IUPAP in autumn 1998 to support international
exchange of ideas and help in the convergence of the international scientific
community in the large scale activities within the emerging fields of
particle and nuclear astrophysics, gravitation and cosmology.
The Committee has 15 members, selected primarily on the basis of intellectual
leadership and representing the major components of the field. One member
is appointed by each of C4, C11, C12 and C19. One of the members acts
as a link to AC2.
Substructures. In the original program it had been foreseen to appoint
a subpanel in a particular subfield when this would be considered useful
to help convergence of large scale international projects. In two sectors
the need had been identified:
- Gravitational waves: The Gravitational Waves International Committee
has been created by the interested community independently. GWIC had
already expressed its willing to gather under the umbrella of PaNAGIC.
- Very Large Volume Neutrino Observatories. The need had been identified
by the Taormina Workshop of the OECD MegaScience Forum in 1997.
PaNAGIC committee should report to all of C4, C11, C12, C19, but the
formal relationship should be with C4.
This document contains:
- The report on the four-year activity.
- A self-assessment exercise and a proposal to continue.
- A proposal for its constitution
PaNAGIC has held five meetings:
The Gravitational Wave International Committee (GWIC) was formed,
prior to the creation of PaNAGIC, when members of all gravitational
waves experiments met in Paris in November 1997. The field of gravitational
wave physics is a new and rapidly growing field with a number of major
facilities being developed. The committee was formed because there was
a need to develop good communication and co-operation between the projects
around the world, especially with the construction of the large suspended
mass interferometers. The committee consists of representatives of all
the major initiatives in the world, both for resonant bars and for interferometers.
More recently, a representation of the space based experiment, LISA
and a theoretical representative have been added. Barry Barish presently
serves as chair of GWIC. The committee was modelled after ICFA for particle
accelerators, in order to create a forum for communication, sponsoring
workshops, etc in this new field.
GWIC's membership includes representatives of all the interferometer
detector projects (ACIGA, GEO, LIGO, TAMA, and VIRGO), acoustic detector
projects (ALLEGRO, AURIGA, EXPLORER, NAUTILUS, and NIOBE), and space-based
detector projects (LISA). GWIC meets regularly at least once a year
in occasion of the Amaldi Conf., in the year this is held, and otherwise
in occasion of other major meetings of the gw community.
When PaNAGIC was formed, GWIC was a natural body to serve as a subcommittee
to PaNAGIC representing the field of gravitational wave physics and
GWIC accepted the invitation to serve this role. GWIC has representation
on PaNAGIC and reports regularly in both written and oral reports.
GWICs first accomplishment was to create a central biannual conference
on the science of gravitational wave detection, as no such conference
existed. The Amaldi Conference just had its fourth successful conference
in Perth, Australia in July 2001 with 200 attendees, which for the first
time was an IUPAP sponsored meeting. In addition, GWIC sponsors two
workshops each year, one in detector development and one in data analysis
techniques, which are small and international in location and participation.
GWIC serves as a forum for the directors of the major projects to meet
annually and is very useful in that role. As a result, some international
collaboration on R&D for future detectors (e.g. sapphire test masses)
has developed. Equally importantly co-operation on data analysis has
resulted for resonant bars, where published results have been produced.
A joint data format has been decided for all gravitational wave detectors,
allowing common data analysis. The ultimate aim is to create a true
international network of gravitational wave detectors that can be used
together as one scientific instrument.
The Cherenkov detection of high-energy (>1 TeV) neutrinos in
the deep sea or Antarctic ice promises to open an important new window
onto the cosmos. The uncertainties in the current neutrino-rate calculations,
the fragmentation of the interested community, and the high price tag
of the future large size projects have raised a number of questions
among scientists, funding agencies, and governments alike. Following
the conclusions of the OECD Mega Science Forum workshop of Taormina
in May 1997, PaNAGIC set up the High Energy Neutrino Astrophysics Panel
(HENAP) with the following mandate:
- Firm up the scientific justifications: likely sources expected rates
and their uncertainties, astrophysical importance of detecting such
neutrinos, and connection with other astronomical observations.
- Establish the needed sensitivity and volume and examine the potential
justifications for more than one site.
- Identify the needed steps to reach the required detector sensitivity,
and establish the scientific milestones that should be reached by
the successive generations of instruments, before proceeding to the
- Define, with the scientists involved, the elements of comparison
of the proposed technologies: performance, reliability, maintenance,
cost effectiveness etc.
- Identify the opportunity for R&D collaboration between the various
- Define the scientific and technical criteria for the choice of site(s)
for a high-energy neutrino observatory.
- Suggest international collaboration guidelines.
- Examine the potential for involvement of industry
- Explore the benefit of the facilities for other fields of science.
The membership of HENAP consists of:Enrique FERNANDEZ (Spain) Chair,
Steve BARWICK (US), John CARR (France), Charles DERMER (US), Friedrich
DYDAK (CERN), Grigorii DOMAGATSKY (Russia), Emilio MIGNECO (Italy),
Rene ONG (US), John PEOPLES (US), Leonidas RESVANIS (Greece), Yoji TOTSUKA
(Japan), Eli WAXMAN (Israel)
HENAP has held four meetings, on March 10, 2001 in Venice, Italy, on
September 7 and 8, 2001 in Gran Sasso National Laboratory of the INFN,
also in Italy, in Laguna Beach (California) on November 28 and 29 2001,
at Barcelona (Spain) on March 26-28, 2002 and, finaaly at Munich (Germany)
on May 28, 2002. HENAP has produced its final report to PaNAGIC "High
Energy Neutrino Observatories" on July 1st 2002. It is available at
In particular, the Report contains the following Recommendations:
"The observation of cosmic neutrinos with energies above a few hundred
GeV will be of the highest scientific importance in that it will open
an entirely new window to the most energetic phenomena in the Universe.
Unlike charged particles, neutrinos point directly to the source of
their production and provide unambiguous evidence for the acceleration
of hadrons in those sources. Unlike photons, they can penetrate enormous
amounts of intervening matter, thus providing a unique way to probe
into the interior of known sources or to reveal new sources.
The feasibility of using deep water and polar ice as a detecting medium
has been proven by the Lake Baikal experiment, and the AMANDA experiment
at the South Pole, respectively. The experience of these projects also
indicates that the technology to increase the size of the detectors
to a km3-scale is now available. This is the scale where one can also
reasonably expect, from theoretical models, to see high-energy neutrino
signals from discrete astrophysical sources.
The cosmic-ray induced background limits high-energy neutrino detection
to upward-going neutrinos that originate from the hemisphere opposite
to that of the detector location. Complete coverage of the sky, which
is important given the exploratory nature of these experiments, thus
requires two detectors located in opposite Earth hemispheres.
The experiments are technologically challenging and will require the
involvement of a number of industrial contractors. The sea experiments
in particular will provide a testing ground for deployment of communication
equipment and for the use of remotely operated vehicles, which are of
interest to industry. The experiments also provide a platform for the
deployment of measuring equipment for other scientific fields.
The scale of the experiments is very large and therefore requires
a large number of scientists and engineers. The likely available resources
and the number of scientists involved at present indicate the need for
concentrating all the efforts in two distinct large projects, one in
All the above considerations lead us to the following recommendations:
- Recommendation 1
The observation of cosmic neutrinos above 100 GeV is of great
scientific importance. Such neutrinos open a new window to the most
energetic phenomena in the Universe and represent an opportunity for
scientific discovery that should be pursued.
From cosmic- and gamma-ray observations, we know that astrophysical
processes accelerate particles to very high energies, extending to
1020 eV and above. There are good arguments to expect the production
of high-energy neutrinos as well. Detecting such neutrinos is of high
importance for three reasons:
- neutrinos provide unambiguous evidence for the cosmic acceleration
- neutrinos point directly back to their production site, and
- neutrinos can traverse all intervening diffuse matter in the Universe
and reveal hidden sources.
- Recommendation 2
The detectors should be of km3-scale, the construction of which
is considered technically feasible.
Conservative flux estimations from astrophysical sources imply
that detectors with masses equal to or larger than 1 Gton should detect
several neutrinos of energy 1 to 103 TeV per year. Even larger detectors
may be required at higher energies. Plausible scenarios are being
discussed where higher fluxes of TeV neutrinos are produced, leading
to positive signals in smaller detector volumes.
- Recommendation 3
The driving motivation for km3-scale neutrino detectors is the observation
of cosmic point sources. For this purpose a complete coverage of the
sky is an important goal, and thus a km3-scale detector in the Northern
hemisphere should be built to complement the IceCube detector being
constructed at the South Pole.
Sources are not isotropically distributed in the local universe
at redshift z << 0.1, and this, coupled with the likely small
rates of potential sources, calls for a complete coverage of the sky.
The Galactic center is of particular interest and only Northern hemisphere
sites are able to see upward-going neutrinos from this region.
- Recommendation 4
The existence of two detectors with different technologies is an important
Deployment and simultaneous usage of other detectors on the surface
is easier in ice, while the reconstruction of Cherenkov light in water
enables better angular resolution, and therefore potentially better
- Recommendation 5
The scientific objectives of km3-scale detectors of cosmic neutrinos
are strongly enhanced by contemporaneous observations of a broad spectrum
of electromagnetic radiation, and thus it is important to set up coordination
and communication between neutrino observatories and other major astronomy
The contemporaneous observation by neutrinos of point-like sources
observed in other instruments with much better pointing accuracy will
be decisive in the identification of the sources and the understanding
of their physics mechanism. Lines of communication between the neutrino
and photon communities should be established through joint scientific
committees and meetings.
- Recommendation 6
The km3-scale detector projects are unique facilities that should
be open to all interested scientific teams who wish to contribute
to their construction and exploitation.
Opening the collaborations to world-wide participation is very desirable.
The Northern hemisphere deep-water detector project should be open
to all interested scientific teams from the outset. IceCube, which
is already an international project, should examine possibilities
for greater participation of other teams.
- Recommendation 7
The km3-scale detectors should be regularly monitored by international
The projects should be monitored by regular peer-reviews of the scientific
program, and of the engineering and managerial aspects.
- Recommendation 8
Adequate planning to make the data collected by the detectors available
to the scientific community is strongly encouraged.
Large facilities in many fields of science are required to make their
scientific data available to the scientific community at large. This
requires considerable organization and resources, which should not
be neglected in the planning of the experiments. In order not to lose
the opportunities for data collection for broader dissemination, those
interested in the data should get involved in the planning.
- Recommendation 9
There is at this point no justification for more than one Northern
hemisphere deep-water neutrino detector of km3-scale.
Arguments for more than one detector in the Northern hemisphere stem
from continuous coverage of the Southern hemisphere sky, and from
the virtues of different detector technologies and different systematic
errors. These arguments do not outweigh the advantages from pooling
resources in a single, optimized detector.
- Recommendation 10
The timely formation of an international collaboration for the construction
and exploitation of a km3-scale Northern hemisphere deep-water detector
The commitment of the scientists to build a km3-scale detector can
start in the next few years. This commitment is needed to assemble
an international collaboration with the required technical strength
and to select the appropriate site for the detector. The start of
construction should be set by the progress on the current-generation
detectors (ANTARES, Lake Baikal and NESTOR). Valuable experience will
be gained in the next few years from the development of instrumentation
and from the deployment and operation in the sea by ANTARES, NEMO
and NESTOR. The lessons learned from their efforts should be incorporated
into the design of the km3-scale detector.
In its fifth meeting on May 28, 2002, PaNAGIC discussed on possible
follow-on of the HENAP activities, after the presentation of the report
to IUPAP. When presenting the final HENAP report at the PaNAGIC meeting
in Munich, Fernandez recommended, on behalf of the HENAP committee members,
to convene a meeting (in about one year or more from now) to facilitate
cooperation on the Northern Hemisphere cubic kilometre array. He expressed
the willingness of the HENAP members to act as the organising committee
of that meeting. In June 2002, at the 7th meeting of the OECD Global
Science Forum, A. Bettini advanced the proposal to present a report
on the HENAP activity in the 8th meeting, foreseen for January 2003,
and to discuss the possible contribution of the Organisation to the
follow-on, in agreement with IUPAP.
2.4 General conference
PaNAGIC believes to be very important the existence of a common
forum for the scientific debate amongst the different components of
the field, to help the growth of a common culture. Rather than creating
a new series, the Committee has decided to work with the organisers
of the TAUP series to transform it gradually in the general conference
for particle and nuclear astrophysics.
The first (biennial) issue has been TAUP 2001, held at Gran Sasso Laboratory
on Sept. 8-12 2001. The Conference received the support of IUPAP through
C4. The next issue, TAUP 2003, will be held in Seattle; http://int.phys.washington.edu
Under stimulation of PaNAGIC the Particle Astrophysics Winter School
had been programmed by Eli Waxman and scheduled for January 2001 in
Israel, but unfortunately could not take place for external reasons;
the Erice International School of Cosmic Ray Astrophysics (Nov. 2000)
The PaNAGIC committee proposes IUPAP sponsorship for the Third Mexican
School on Astrophysics, organized every two years with the aim to bring
together young astrophysicists, nuclear and particle physicists interested
in the interplay between those three areas.
PaNAGIC believes that the field needs still more high-level schools
and looks forward to the possible organization at Erice of a School
in fundamental particle and nuclear astrophysics.
2.6 WEB site
These actions are meant to create a set of data describing the field
for reference both of scientific and of policy makers and to increase
the public awareness on the science.
The WEB site has been created and is still under development in the
site of the Gran Sasso Laboratory at http://www.lngs.infn.it/site/exppro/panagic/
It contains the following entries and subentries
- Mandate and membership
- Panels and Committees
- Gravitational Waves International Committee (GWIC)
- Link to the GWIC site (independently developed)
- High Energy Neutrino Astrophysics Panel (HENAP)
- Meetings (contains the notes of the past meetings)
- Conferences and Workshops
- Links to TAUP and Amaldi Conference
- Link to the Particle Astrophysics Winter School; Dead Sea, Israel
- Link to the International School of Cosmic Ray Astrophysics;
Erice (TP), Italy November 11 - 21 2001
- Particle and nuclear astrophysics
- General public.
- The Science Report of PaNAGIC to IUPAP mentioned below at §2.8,
containing a review of the status and perspectives of the science.
- The HENAP report on High Energy Neutrino Observatories
- Laboratories and experiments.
Laboratories and Experiments involved in the PaNAGIC project are sorted
into eight different scientific areas. Each area contains an entry
for each relevant experiment or laboratory including those in project
or in the proposal status. The entry of each experiment or laboratory
contains in a standardised format the description of the experiment
including its status, its spokesperson, the collaboration etc.
This section is near to completion.
- Underground and underwater laboratories
- Cosmic Rays
- High energy gamma-ray astronomy
- High energy neutrino astronomy
- Nuclear astrophysics
- Non accelerator neutrino physics
- Particle cosmology
- Gravitational Waves
2.8. The Science Report.
PaNAGIC produced in 2000 a Science Report containing a review
of the ongoing experiments and future projects in the fields of
particle and nuclear astrophysics and of particle related cosmology.
The report was presented to the meeting of the Council and Commission
Chairs of IUPAP in Beijing on 6 October 2000.
The principal points in the PaNAGIC program and the status of
their completion are the following
- Membership. PaNAGIC feels that the criteria originally taken to
define the membership produced a working group competent in the different
sectors of the field and well balanced.
- Meetings. Regularly hold one per year and well attended. Work through
the e-mail between the meetings.
- GWIC. Its role as a forum for the directors of the major projects
to meet annually and has been very useful. A joint data format has
been decided for all gravitational wave detectors, allowing common
data analysis. The pre-existing Amaldi Conference became the general
conference of the area under the auspices of GWIC.
- HENAP. The HENAP meetings have provided a forum for the major experiments
to discuss together in detail many technical and organizational points,
and this has created a good basis for future discussions and possible
convergence. The final report is an important document including both
an in-depth review of the field and a set of recommendations for its
- Conferences. PaNAGIC helped in transforming TAUP series in the general
particle and nuclear astrophysics conference. The process is well
started and will gradually proceed.
Schools for young scientists working in particle and nuclear physics,
in astrophysics and in cosmology interested in the intersections of
these areas are considered by PaNAGIC of great importance. Some actions
have been done but more work is needed.
- WEB site. A large fraction is already in place and it has become
a useful source of information both for the scientific community and
the scientific Agencies.
PaNAGIC feels that it has accomplished a large fraction of the work
program set up at its start-up. The Science Report produced by PaNAGIC
has already been useful to funding Agencies in the planning of their
future actions in the field. The visibility of the field of nuclear
and particle astrophysics has been increased by the actions of PaNAGIC.
On the other hand much more work is needed in this emerging field
and PaNAGIC seeks the approval by the IUPAP Council of a renewed mandate
for a period of six years.
4. Proposed constitution
- The mandate is to support international exchanges of ideas
and to foster international cooperation in the pursuit of large
scientific projects in the emerging fields of particle and nuclear
astrophysics, gravitation, and cosmology, in particular in the sectors
The Committee has 15 members, selected primarily on the basis
of intellectual leadership and representing the major components of
the field. One member is designated by each of C4, C11, C12 and C19.
The other members are nominated by PaNAGIC. One of the members acts
as a link to AC2.
The Members of the Committee are appointed by the Council of
A member of the Committee is elected as its Chair by the members.
The term is three years and can be renewed for one consecutive
- The study of basic constituents of matter and their interactions
by non-accelerator means.
- The study of the sources, acceleration mechanism and propagation
of high energy particles in the Universe.
- The study of nuclear and particle properties and processes of astrophysical
interest in the Universe.
- The study of gravity, including the detection and the astrophysical
sources of gravitational waves.